Lift Voices Describe Hardships Among Black And Latina Mothers In Pandemic
During this time, more single women and more families began to migrate along with the working males who had already been migrating for several decades. This difference in gender migration is largely attributed to the difference in Latino and Latina work opportunities in the United States. Prior to the 1970s, the majority of the Latino migratory work was agriculturally based. However, with the end of the Bracero program, the United States policy on migration within the hemisphere shifted from encouraging primarily working males to migrate.
The Hispanic paradox refers to the medical research indicating that Latino immigrants enter the United States with better health, on average, than the average American citizen, but lose this health benefit the longer they reside in the United States. It is important to note that this health paradox affects both male and female populations of Latinos. Likewise, immigrant Latina women are found to have a lower infant mortality rate than U.S. born women. This has been explained by the tendency for Hispanic women to continue breastfeeding for a longer amount of time. The 1970s marked the first decade in which a gender shift occurred in Mexican migration.
Latina Style 50
Rodriguez MA, Heilemann MV, Fielder E, Ang A, Nevarez F, Mangione CM. Intimate partner violence, depression, and PTSD among pregnant Latina women. Intimate partner sexual assault against women and associated victim substance use, suicidality, and risk factors for femicide. Bauer HM, Rodriguez MA, Perez-Stable EJ. Prevalence and determinants of intimate partner abuse among public hospital primary care patients. Adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence–United States.
When it comes to a population of individuals, the group may have some common characteristics, but each individual woman, her family, and her health care team can have a unique set of issues that affect the medical and surgical treatment of her breast cancer. Providing access to a culturally appropriate community health worker during breast cancer screenings may impact elements of patient care and satisfaction among Hispanic/Latina women, Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers report in American Journal of Roentgenology. Furthermore, women pursuing college degrees are on average older than their male counterparts, and tend to go into lower-paying career fields at disproportionate rates. Women also hold an unequal share of the nation’s outstanding student-loan debt — two-thirds of the pie, according to the American Association of University Women — despite the fact that fewer women have college degrees.
The resulting delay in the treatment of breast cancer in Hispanic/Latina women affects the prognosis. With time, tumors become larger and are more likely to spread to other areas of the body, requiring more extensive treatment and making them more difficult to eradicate. Breast cancer self-examination, which can detect lumps and breast changes, is obviously something everyone can do.
There are other reasons why women are paid less than men, despite being in similar career fields, holding equivalent degrees, and working in the same parts of the country. For women at the higher end of the earning scale, promotions and raises are often subjective.
While Latina women face a multitude of issues in immigrating into the United States, perhaps the most significant ones revolve around basic human rights. All too often, illegal Latina immigrants are unable to avoid human abuse because of lack of protection from the law. As a result, Latinas endure a severely unequal migratory experience when compared to their male counterparts. Immigration to the United States offers new economic prospects for Latina women.
Vanessa experienced firsthand the cost and complexity of building a business from scratch. However, with the support, guidance and education, she received from the IE-NLBWA she gained confidence in converting from a business owner to an entrepreneur! Since her experience with the IE-NLBWA Leadership & Entrepreneur program, she has co-founded two other businesses. EMPOWER ME NOW LLC, a leadership motivational training center that focuses on offering training to develop professionals and leaders at the same time maintaining compliance and Just like Grandma’s house day care LLC a daycare in low income communities for low income working parents. Gloria Arellanes is a political activist known for her involvement with the Chicano Movement, the Brown Berets, and has been an instrumental figure in the development of Chicana Feminism.
Offering and facilitating access to occupations that are higher paid will also move Latinas up the occupational ladder. Here too, however, we find that even within the same occupations, Latinas fare worse. Lastly, it is important to strengthen workplace protections, like equal pay for equal work provisions, so that those women who do have the same education, the same occupation and are equally qualified in the workplace are not paid less or driven away from moving up to these higher paid positions.
Much of this trafficking is hard to detect, as it is not usually visible to the public or governmental eye. Currently, there are limited resources for Latina immigrants in the United States. As explained in Motivations of Immigration, many women come to the United States for a better education, among other factors. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research explains the workings of organizations aimed to support the struggles of Latina immigrants.
- Counts of singleton term and preterm births by month and race/ethnicity from January 1, 2009, through July 30, 2017 , were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wonder online database.
- Based on these data, the overall false positive rate is ~1.0 percent in the serological assay used for this study.
- AdditionalEPI research on the Hispanic-white wage gapincludes analysis of immigrant status and country of origin.
- While some argue that Latinas arechoosing lower-paid professions, further education isn’t a panacea, as shown in Figure A. Regardless of their level of educational attainment or their occupation, Latinas are paid less than their white male counterparts.
- Women residing in the United States who had singleton births during the study period were included.
Among Hispanic Americans, country of origin also has a strong impact on labor force participation. Mora and Dávila also find significant differences based on the generation of immigration. The wage gap between second-generation Hispanic workers and second-generation white workers is narrower than the gap between first-generation Hispanic and white workers.5 But beyond this drop from the first to the second generation, the gap doesn’t narrow further for later generations. In the United States, an estimate of at least ten thousand people are forced into labor through such a process. Within the category of women, immigrant women are the ones who are targeted and pulled in more easily.
In 2011, the American Civil Liberties Union asserted that incarceration particularly affects Latinas and black women as they are often the primary caregivers for their children and are also disproportionately victimized. The Latina share of the female population in the United States will increase from 16.4 percent today to 25.7 percent in 2050.
Caution should be used in generalizing the findings because of the small number of https://www.xgoonline.com/?p=5344, the inability to assess subgroups and acculturation status of Latinas, the insured nature of the sample, and the data collection method. Collective bargaining agreements also mimic pay transparency by clearly defining pay scales for different positions.26 As such, pay gaps are lower for union workers. Similarly, banning salary history helps eliminate outright wage discrimination by preventing workers from carrying around lower wages as they change jobs.
This can leave them open to discrimination and bias, which can be especially harmful for women of color. While the federal minimum wage acts as an equalizer between genders, women of color are over-represented among low-wage earner. While they account for 17 percent of the total workforce, they make up 33 percent of workers in fast-growing, low-wage jobs like those in fast food, retail, and home health aid work.
Yes, the United States has come a long way since the days when women could not legally vote and were barred from legitimate employment – but the reminder of this wage gap demonstrates that our lawmakers still have much to do to ensure equality for all women in America. And it’s the kind of step forward that we need, since current projections show that – if trends to close the Latina wage gap continue – they’ll have to wait 232 years for equal pay.
Beginning with the Watershed amendment of 1965, the United States shifted their policy to encourage the migration of whole families by issuing less visas to unskilled single men and more visas to families. While men typically migrate at a young age concentration of 18-25, females migrate at generally consistent rates at all age groups. While Latinos almost always migrate to the United States in search of work, Latina migration follows a pattern heavily tied to family life. Because of this social expectation, many of Hispanic women’s efforts to institute measures to combat their own excess weights, or those of their families, would be derided as socially unacceptable by Hispanic culture, that is, if a mother were even brave enough to attempt these efforts in the first place. This work was supported by institutional funds from the University of Pennsylvania and National Institutes of Health grants .
We used quality assurance procedures to monitor the fidelity of program delivery in both intervention curricula. A rater attended every AMIGAS and general health promotion session and recorded whether all activities were implemented with fidelity. Our results support the efficacy of this linguistically and culturally adapted HIV intervention among ethnically diverse, predominantly foreign-born Latina women. We developed and assessed AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA ), a culturally congruent HIV prevention intervention for Latina women adapted from SiSTA , an intervention for African American women. James W. Hardin is with the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
If a worker is underpaid in one job, and their next job bases their new salary on previous salary, then workers who are more likely to face discriminatory pay at any given employment may face the cumulative effects of this discrimination throughout their careers. Both collective bargaining and banning salary history seek to balance information asymmetries that benefit employers. The intersectional structural barriers faced by Hispanic women that lead to reduced wages affect both their own lifetime earnings, as well as the economic security of their families.
Maternal race/ethnicity was classified in accordance with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards.28 Covariates included monthly counts of male and female preterm births to non-Latina women as well as term births to Latina women. We defined gestational age based on the date of the last menstrual period to ensure consistency across time. As described below, we used 94 months of the presidency of Barack Obama to estimate counterfactual values of preterm births to Latina women during the 9 months beginning November 1, 2016, and ending July 31, 2017. Among the live births recorded during the study period, 11.0% of male and 9.6% of female births to Latina women were preterm compared with 10.2% and 9.3%, respectively, to other women. In the 9-month period beginning with November 2016, an additional 1342 male (95% CI, ) and 995 female (95% CI, ) preterm births to Latina women were found above the expected number of preterm births had the election not occurred.